IPC Health pays respect to the Traditional Custodians of the lands on which we provide our services to the community – the Wurundjeri, Bunurong and Wadawurrung people of the Kulin Nation. We thank their Elders past, present and emerging for their ongoing guidance and valuable wisdom. We acknowledge all First Nations people and groups across this country and also acknowledge that sovereignty was never ceded.

We thank all LGBTIQA+ people who have come before and continue to work towards the improved health and wellbeing of their peers, children, families, friends and communities. We celebrate the extraordinary diversity of people’s bodies, genders, sexualities, and relationships that they represent.

This edition of the IPC Health Annual Report outlines our performance over the 2021-2022 financial year, unless otherwise stated. The details contained within were correct at the time of publication, November 2022. This Annual Report, along with previous editions, can be found on our website at

You can request a copy by contacting our Client Services team on 1300 472 432 or emailing

IPC Health is pleased to acknowledge funding from the Victorian and Commonwealth Governments.

St Albans
1 Andrea Street
St Albans VIC 3021

Level 1, 499 Ballarat Road
Sunshine VIC 3020

Altona Meadows
330 Queen Street
Altona Meadows VIC 3028

Hoppers Crossing
117-129 Warringa Crescent
Hoppers Crossing VIC 3029

Wyndham Vale
510 Ballan Road
Wyndham Vale VIC 3024

Deer Park
106 Station Road
Deer Park VIC 3023

Phone 1300 472 432
ACN 136 685 151 | ABN 68 846 923 225

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Message from the
Chair and the CEO

In a complex environment, IPC Health’s teams remained focused on delivering for our clients, partners, funders and the communities in which we operate. Supported by our central teams and empowered to identify opportunities in line with our purpose, IPC Health provided access and delivered health care and support to more people in local communities who were most in need.

Our strategy to empower communities to achieve better health and wellbeing and an improved quality of life is unchanged. Over time, this has seen us build deep and trusting relationships with local communities, reaching those who are uncomfortable accessing mainstream health care, connecting them into the health system and supporting them on their wellbeing journeys.

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Our impact in numbers

Active clients
Services provided
includes both appointments and contacts

Client Feedback Survey 

Our clients receive an invitation to give us their feedback via an online survey after they have attended one of our campuses for an appointment. We use this information to make continual improvements to our services and campuses throughout the year. 

Number of client feedback surveys completed
Surveyed clients who told us they were happy or very happy with the service received
Surveyed clients who were likely or extremely likely to recommend IPC Health to family and friends

Victorian Health Experience Survey

The Victorian Health Experience Survey is an annual independent check in with our clients to see how we performed over the past year. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the survey was suspended for the previous two years. We weren’t back at full capacity for face to face appointments for all of 2021, which also impacted on our ability to have clients complete the survey. 

We’re pleased to report that we scored
for overall experience 
number of Victorian Health Experience Surveys completed 

Our people

total number of staff (including casuals and contractors) as at 30 June 2022 
full-time equivalent 
full time 
fixed term
of our staff have been with IPC Health between five and 20 years
of our staff identified as speaking another language with their family or community

Top five identified languages

  • Hindi
  • Macedonian
  • Vietnamese
  • Greek
  • Italian

Our people,
our culture

Our People & Culture team has grown rapidly in the past couple of years providing guidance and information to all levels of staff across the organisation as well as potential new staff members. They’ve even been seen out and about at the Melbourne Career Expo with the most inviting stall of them all, if we do say so ourselves! 

A big win for One Team IPC Health

We were thrilled to be nominated as a finalist for the Australian Human Resources Institute’s (AHRI) Sir Ken Robinson Innovation and Creativity Award. What’s more is that we won! This category acknowledges outstanding initiatives or programs that support and create a culture that stimulates creativity in the workforce and harnesses innovation to achieve organisational outcomes.

We were recognised for the range of best practice initiatives and approaches we’ve implemented to drive innovations and better ways of working for the benefit of our staff, clients and communities. These include: 

  • Surplus For Purpose: One Team IPC Health (Growth Strategy & People Plan) initiative 
  • Modern Workplace program 
  • Innovation Challenge series 
  • Leadership MINDset 
  • Leading COVID-19 response

Through this award we’re celebrating our culture and new ways of working as One Team IPC Health. We support staff led innovation and include our clients and partners in the modelling of new or improved service delivery. 

We also empower our clients to take charge of their health and wellbeing while supporting them with holistic connected care and prevention services that meet their individual clinical, mental health and social needs. 

Volunteers making a world of difference

In August 2021 we employed our first volunteer coordinator to connect and support existing IPC Health volunteering efforts. We also developed new volunteering activities to fit the needs of our services while tapping into the capacities and strengths of our local communities. 

There are infinite reasons for volunteering; from gaining experience while job hunting or fulfilling health and allied health course requirements to meeting Centrelink mutual obligation requirements. A lot of people are also looking for social connection, to contribute to their communities or just want to help out at their favourite local health service (that’s us!).

We also have diverse reasons for including volunteers in our day-to-day business such as finding much-needed extra pairs of hands, community engagement and feedback, providing volunteering opportunities for clients as part of their health journey (for example, through our Social Prescribing program), and building our profile and reputation in the local community.

IPC Health volunteers are involved in many ways in the organisation. They greet people at the front door, support our Client Services team and assist new clients; work alongside our Allied Health teams to help in wellbeing activities; and also participate in community consultations and codesign sessions. They are also involved in vital back of house administration and coordination roles, and they truly become part of the team.

Learn more about our Volunteer Program

Pivoting from essential safety to client care

During the most restrictive times of the COVID-19 pandemic, our volunteers played a vital role in keeping our staff, clients and communities safe as first-line concierges. These volunteers worked across each of our campuses meeting people at the front door, measuring temperatures, helping them to check in, and providing masks and hand sanitiser.

Knitted into the fabric of their local communities

Coming in at over 40 years of activity, the IPC Health Knitting Group is one of our longest standing volunteer groups. This remarkable group of local women (one who has been involved for 33 years!) wasn’t going to let the challenges of a global pandemic stand in the way.

Expanding care offerings through innovation

Understanding ourselves better so we can improve the client experience

The Innovation & Growth team has been working with clients, staff and sector partners to better understand people’s experiences when they interact with our services. For example, understanding a client’s first impression of IPC Health or how satisfied they are with the care they receive.

This collaborative project identified keys issues impacting the quality of our service delivery. Through this learning, the team has co-created new and improved ways of how we operate as an organisation so we can provide the care people want and need. The team ran multiple workshops and interviews, gaining different perspectives and insights on problem areas and mapped out opportunities for change and improvement. Below are some highlights from this work.

Commonwealth Home Support Program services through the My Aged Care Portal

Problem: We heard from our Intake team and referrers that the way the portal was set up was confusing and hard to navigate. Staff could update client records for existing clients in the backend of the portal but no new referrals could be submitted in the part of the portal that was accessible to the public.

Solution: We updated the portal with streamlined options so clients can see what services they are eligible for and they can apply for them. We also initiated ongoing regular meetings between IPC Health Allied Health and Intake teams as well as with the Regional Assessment Services and local councils to improve sharing of information.

Clients given choice of location for campus-based services

Problem: Clients were only offered services at the IPC Health campuses in the local government area that they lived in and not given the option to see if the service at another location might suit them better.

Solution: Clients can now access a range of services (where funding permits) based on their preferences regardless of their residential address within a local government area. This change is helping us to meet the needs of our clients and tailor our service offerings.

Getting quick answers for kids with special needs

IPC Health partnered with Amaze, a peak body for autistic people in Victoria to see how we might enable children with autism and their families to access early assessment, intervention and support services, equipping them with the skills, tools and knowledge to lead healthier and happier lives.

The Innovation & Growth team has been conducting an Autism Assessment Clinic pilot program from our Wyndham Vale campus starting with 10 client families. We started the process by engaging consultants Wave Design who met with 20 community members and staff to design a service blueprint.

An internal multidisciplinary working group was then established with a paediatrician, wellbeing coordinator, speech pathologists, psychologist, occupational therapist and supported by our Senior Manager Allied Health Services as Project Lead, as well as a Communication and Engagement Officer and Innovation and Growth Lead. Within two months the team had organised and set up the clinic; templates and letters were created, training was held around administering tests, and appointments were scheduled with our families.

The spectre of an autism assessment and subsequent diagnosis can be a scary, uncertain and lonely time for families. There can be long waiting lists to be seen by individual specialists and families can feel confused about the process and next steps. The goal of our clinic is to have a family wellbeing coordinator who is their main contact for appointments, information and to answer questions that arise along the journey. Another benefit is that all of the necessary services are co-located in one campus so the families have a familiar and safe space.

The program is also supported by our newly developed Autism Clinic Education Hub webpage providing our families with information about each step in the process from the initial contact with the clinic to after the diagnosis. Each stage contains information and links to support and other helpful organisations. Even if there’s no autism spectrum diagnosis at the end of the assessment process, children can be referred to other IPC Health services to support their needs.

9 families and 10 children
completed all sessions in their program
9 out of 10 children
in the clinic were diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum

Building affirmative services for our underserved rainbow communities

Another project that started off as a staff-led Innovation Challenge is moving towards its pilot phase. The Transgender, Gender Diverse & Non-Binary Wellness Service project recognises the limited options and lengthy waiting lists for people wanting to access inclusive and gender-affirming health services, with no accessible clinics across the western suburbs of Melbourne.

Child and Family Hub at IPC Health Wyndham Vale

After an intensive and fruitful innovation sprint, we started seeing clients at our Child and Family Hub at the IPC Health Wyndham Vale campus in April 2022. We invited a number of families with children from birth up to 8 years who are living with adversity to help us design and trial the service.

See our full annual report for more innovation stories
Client Success StorY

Naz and his family get the wraparound support they need

Naz* is the primary carer of his nine children as his wife Ayla* has mental health challenges and struggles with her parenting role.

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Early Help Family Service at Timbertop Community Centre

Our new Early Help Family Service, co-located at Timbertop Community Centre in Aintree, opened its doors in July 2022.

The service is funded by the Department of Families, Fairness and Housing and extends our growing reach into the Melton community.

The service is available to families with children from birth up to 12 years who live in the Brimbank and Melton local government areas. Our families may be experiencing life challenges such as financial hardship, unstable housing, challenging behaviours from their children, changes to the family unit, a concern about their child’s development or their own mental health concerns. We connect families to local community services while empowering parents with practical information about each stage of their child’s development.

The Early Help Family Service helps families with:

  • Personalised support to meet their child’s development
    and wellbeing needs
  • Connection to community services and other local
    community programs
  • Help to find health and social services
  • Education and other support
  • Group-based family support

Our Family Community Worker supports families with:

  • Identifying their goals and achieving them
  • Choosing the right kind of support for them
  • Connecting them with family service
Learn more about our Early Help Family Service

Social prescriptions to treat the whole person

Our Social Prescribing program is a holistic, person-centred model delivered by a multidisciplinary health care team using non-medical prescriptions to increase clients’ social and emotional wellbeing.

Working together with one of the program’s wellbeing coordinators, clients identify their own wellbeing goals with a personalised social prescription plan bringing together internal and external referrals to programs, services and activities.

Social Prescribing offers support and guidance for clients to connect with their local community, counter loneliness and social isolation, and improve their overall health and wellbeing.

referrals received
referrals made out as part of social prescriptions
Average of
contacts from wellbeing coordinator to client 
Learn more about our Social Prescribing program

Program pivots to ease clients back into society after lockdowns

In response to reduced face-to-face community programs and services during the COVID-19 lockdowns and changing government guidelines, the Social Prescribing wellbeing coordinators developed and facilitated the Steps to Reconnect program to address our clients’ evolving needs during these socially isolated times.

Six social groups were codesigned and delivered across accessible local parks in the Brimbank and Wyndham areas. Each session provided clients with an opportunity to connect socially in a supportive and safe environment while enjoying the benefit of a gentle walk.

The coordinators also explored social prescription possibilities in a group context. This switch resulted in positive client-reported outcomes including improved social connections, increased confidence, and readiness to engage in their individual social prescription plans.

Following a successful client evaluation, Steps to Reconnect expanded to recruit from the IPC Health Volunteer Program as well as representatives from local community centres and libraries to share knowledge and information. The program also ran education sessions funded by the Department of Health on the correct and safe use of rapid antigen testing kits.


Steps to Reconnect has increased my social connections 
strongly agree or agree
Steps to Reconnect
was safe and inclusive
strongly agree or agree
I have improved in confidence
in joining groups and activities
strongly agree or agree
My knowledge of local services
and activities has improved through Steps to Reconnect
strongly agree or agree
Client Success STORY

Marko steps back into life

Marko* is a retired dad in his 60s who lives alone and has limited contact with his two children. He has previously been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression and was referred to our Social Prescribing program by his GP due to social isolation.

Promoting prevention and wellbeing

Supporting First Nations clients through the pandemic

Despite staff shortages and ongoing challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic, our Aboriginal Health team continues to provide equitable health care assistance to our clients and communities.

By adapting and responding to the evolving situation, we have strived to maintain continuity of care for clients as well as the wider Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community who use IPC Health services and are connected to The Lounge at our Wyndham Vale campus (previously known as The Elders Lounge).

Of note is the growing population of younger First Nations families who are moving into the Wyndham Vale area and seeking support. While many haven’t been eligible for the Integrated Team Care Program [ITC], our outreach worker has been able to link them with services for families such as Victorian Aboriginal Childcare Agency [VACCA] or our Child and Family Hub at IPC Health Wyndham Vale.

As the pandemic and associated restrictions continue to affect these clients, the team has looked at ways to support our clients and promote health and wellbeing through:

  • Promoting preventative health and exercise
  • Encouraging and promoting healthy eating
  • Encouraging social interactions and attendance of education sessions, cultural trips and events
  • Encouraging clients to stay up to date with their flu and COVID-19 vaccinations
  • Introducing meditation and mindfulness strategies
  • Referring clients to other services within IPC Health and developing streamlined referral pathways between external providers
number of ITC clients
new ITC referrals
number of ITC clients discharged
most common conditions or diagnoses in current clients (Diabetes, Mental health, Eye conditions)
of our clients have had at least one COVID-19 booster shot
of our clients have received their second booster
of our clients have had their annual flu vaccination

Celebrating the impact of community health through the C-19 Network and people power

The C-19 Network formed in August 2020 as part of the Victorian Government’s response to the unfurling COVID-19 pandemic.

The consortium consisted of the community health organisations EACH, cohealth, DPV Health and Star Health with IPC Health as lead agency and coordination point. Using staff and resources from each organisation, the C-19 Network created the Rapid Response Testing Teams [RRTT] program which firstly focused on delivering COVID-19 testing across metropolitan Melbourne and some regional areas in Victoria. It then quickly morphed into community engagement and information sharing and finally, vaccination rollout.

Read More

Newport mosque welcomes pop up clinic

Starting as a partnership with Western Health, in September 2021 IPC Health took over the operation of a vaccination hub at the Australian Islamic Centre’s mosque in Newport from Western Health.

High-risk response provides high reward for vulnerable communities

Our High risk Accommodation Response [HRAR] program was the lead provider for the Brimbank and Melton areas. 

This service supported residents in high-risk accommodation settings (such as public and community housing, rooming houses, caravan parks and supported residential services) by providing culturally appropriate COVID-19 preparation and preparedness information and strategies including: 

  • Vaccination rollout information 
  • Support to get vaccinated including booking assistance and transport 
  • How to safely isolate at home if required 
  • Local health and wellbeing services information 
  • Identifying health and wellbeing issues 
  • Facilitating appropriate referrals and linkages to local services and supports

The success of this critical program came from flexibly being able to offer much needed health services, supports and information to these vulnerable populations through a range of targeted outreach and inreach engagement strategies. Sometimes this meant just giving them the most up-to-date information if they were open to receiving it, and reassuring people that help was available to them. 

HRAR funding through the Department of Families, Fairness and Housing ended in June 2022. IPC Health recognised the importance of carrying on this work and so we committed to extending the work and relationships built with these communities during the HRAR program by immediately transitioning to the new self-funded Homeless and at Risk of Homelessness Response [HRAR] program. HRAR continues to focus on the Brimbank and Melton areas, supporting people who are experiencing homelessness or are at risk of homelessness including residents in rooming houses and caravan parks.

HaRH’s multidisciplinary team uses a collaborative client- centred approach to provide holistic health and wellbeing assessments. This enables it to facilitate and support linkages into IPC Health services with priority access as well as referrals into external services if needed. This support approach enhances a client’s journey to better health equity and outcomes.

Our catchments
included approximately
dwellings, comprising around 1,500 residents
From March 21, 2021
to June 22, 2022
engagements across
outreach engagement activities
inreach engagement activities
door knocks
Supported and facilitated
health and allied health referrals to IPC Health
external referrals
vaccinations enabled
residents supported to safely isolate at home
Learn more about the HaRH program
Client Success STORY

John’s time to thrive

John* is a public housing resident who came into contact with the HRAR team in February 2021. He reached out to the team for support for urgent dental care.

Young Leaders making change in the West

The Young Leaders of the West [YLOTW] program supports young people to influence behaviour change in their peer communities to prevent gambling harm.

Together with health and community organisations, our Young Leaders are enabled through professional development and empowered to steer the program by hosting events and activities to promote the potential financial and social pitfalls of problem gambling.

Learn more about our YLOTW program

What’s the harm in gambling?

What’s the harm in gambling? was the theme of the inaugural YLOTW Youth Forum hosted by VU Polytechnic Footscray Park campus in June 2022. In a partnership between IPC Health, the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation and the Youth Affairs Council Victoria, the event brought together young people aged 16 to 18 years from schools across the West to have their say about gambling harm and the normalisation of gambling among young people.

YLOTW help get school students on the airwaves

YLOTW teamed up with Making Media to mentor secondary school students in the West to create their own podcasts about the issues surrounding gambling normalisation and its effects. Our Young Leaders and staff were welcomed by the students and teachers at Altona College, Bayside P-12 College, MacKillop College and Williamstown High School.

Student Representative Council member Mia Molloy from Bayside P-12 College Paisley Senior Campus in Newport shared her thoughts on their session with us.

Helping people make it through to the other side of gambling harm

Gambler’s Help at IPC Health is our free, confidential and nonjudgemental service for individuals, families, friends and communities affected by gambling harm.

Paul starts the conversation about gambling harm

As part of Gambling Harm Awareness Week in October 2021, the Gambler’s Help at IPC Health team created a short video called Start the conversation. Featuring our therapeutic and financial counsellors, the video focused on a previous participant of our Young Leaders of the West program, Paul, who told his story of his lived experienced with gambling harm as a young person. Paul has been a champion in this area and an inspiration for many people.

We applaud his honesty, bravery and openness, particularly as he has a cultural background where, for many people, gambling is traditionally started early and there is immense hesitancy around talking about the harms that it can cause.

Learn more about our Wellbeing and Counselling Services

Caring for our communities

Purpose built Sunshine campus responds to clients’ needs

In the heart of bustling Sunshine, our new purpose built community health space opened in June 2022.

‘The health and wellbeing of our clients in Sunshine and the surrounding areas was at the forefront of our priority when designing the space.’ 

Jayne Nelson
CEO, IPC Health 

‘The health and wellbeing of our clients in Sunshine and the surrounding areas was at the forefront of our priority when designing the space.’ 

Jayne Nelson
CEO, IPC Health 

The official launch saw existing clients, staff and key stakeholders welcomed with a campus tour, an Acknowledgement of Country from client and elder Uncle Brian as well as a moving yidaki performance by Djarrin Blow. The unveiling of the campus, which is a big update from our old one, was met with positive feedback from the community and allowed us to feel connected to our local community once again.

Our CEO Jayne Nelson led the campus tour where the community could hear from and ask questions of some of our practitioners from various fields. The walk through gave them a first-hand look at the careful consideration that went into the layout, fit and build of the new spaces. ‘The health and wellbeing of our clients in Sunshine and the surrounding areas was at the forefront of our priority when designing the space,’ said Jayne.

Sunshine and its surrounding areas offer a unique demographic including the elderly, the newly arrived, young families across many different language and cultural communities as well as First Nations peoples, LGBTIQA+ people and all abilities groups. This means we needed a new space to service everyone comfortably and appropriately.

The old Sunshine campus was located within a heritage listed building on Harvester Road which brought some challenges in terms of service delivery. While we were able to work around these challenges to continue serving our community, when the lease expired, we looked for a new building that would allow us to retrofit with purpose.

Along came the recently refurbished and expansive space at Level 1, 499 Ballarat Road. With a clean slate we were able to meticulously design and build consult rooms and service areas that truly met the complex needs of our diverse client community. We’re pleased to offer a large and light-filled physiotherapy gym, new podiatry chairs, a dedicated women’s health room along with a dedicated dietetics room and supermarket display, spacious consult rooms, modern and comfortable waiting rooms and an updated work environment adhering to Activity Based Workplace principles comprising open and flexible client, clinical and staff spaces.

Opening wide to service more clients in need 

Of all our programs it could easily be said that our dental service was the most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and health care restrictions.

Nurturing the next providers of community health care 

Since our Deer Park campus was established over 40 years ago, a crucial component of the GP practice has been to offer training to the next generation of GP registrars as well as medical and nursing students.

Supporting our newest arrivals 

There’s no such thing as a typical day for our Refugee Health team practitioners. 

Not only do they encounter a number of languages and cultures but an individualised care plan for a client can involve services as diverse as health checks from a GP and organising additional help at school to nutrition support from a dietitian and liaising with lawyers. So how do they do it? It’s all about having a robust network of reliable community connections, great organisational skills and a big heart.

Learn more about our Refugee Health program

Afghan refugee health checks

Following the seizure of power by the Taliban in Afghanistan in August 2021, Victoria welcomed almost 3,000 refugees over five months. 

With the initial influx, the Victorian arm of the Refugee Health Programs [RHP] quickly mobilised to respond to the health needs of our new arrivals. Along with cohealth, DPV Health, EACH and Monash Health, together we formed a highly efficient and effective collaboration to provide immediate and innovation care while dealing with the restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns.

Through the C-19 Network, the refugees were tested for COVID-19 and vaccinated. The RHP teams worked alongside to triage and assess people for their social, material and health needs. The C-19 Network’s cultural engagement teams also provided culturally appropriate support and translation services, and a friendly face to a highly traumatised cohort. While immediate health needs were prioritised, the RHP teams knew the refugees would also need ongoing health care and support, so an important part of their work was to also plan for this, calling on their extended networks.

In addition, the response worked closely with partners AMES, the federal Department of Home Affairs, Victoria’s Department of Health, Services Australia, local community health services, GPs, public hospitals and the local Afghan community.

The RHP teams saw a number of health issues including significant nutritional deficiencies, complex disability needs, latent tuberculosis, oral and dental health issues, and chronic health conditions, as well as women in all stages of pregnancy. As well as providing immediate health care, the teams linked the refugees to community GPs who provided services free of charge due to lack of access to Medicare, maternal child health and immunisation services, mental health services, allied health and tertiary health services and also provided health information to increase health literacy.

The unified and flexible way of working used by the RHP collaborative along with their systems and processes was so successful that it is now being used to support new refugee arrivals through the general humanitarian program as well as those from Ukrainian conflict. In addition, the program has been shared across the country so other agencies can implement this care response. 

Together, the C-19 Network and Refugee Health Programs provided the following services: 

immediate health needs referrals
initial health needs assessments for people arriving from interstate quarantine
refugee health assessments 
COVID-19 vaccinations 
COVID-19 tests
contacts by the C-19 Network community engagement teams 
Client Success STORY

A new world opens up at school

Refugee health nurse Jayde was working with a primary school aged child and their family who were seeking asylum.

Supporting all ages with the after-effects of the pandemic and beyond

Our Head to Health program (previously known as HeadtoHelp) celebrated its first year of operation in September 2021. 

Originally funded as a service for people affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, Head to Health has now expanded to include counselling for people experiencing emotional distress and mental ill health.

This program stands out for its ability to get people assessed and into appointments quickly as there are currently long waiting lists for other counselling services in the community across Victoria.

Another aspect of difference is our ability to support young children and teenagers all the way through to elderly people within the one program. We’re also proud to use a No Wrong Door approach. This means that all Victorians of any age who are experiencing emotional distress, mental ill-health and/or addiction can receive help from Head to Health, along with their families and carers.

Clients saw a 95% quality of life improvement based on their K10+ assessment at exit.

new referrals
Client Success STORY

Head to Health equips Jana with the skills and confidence to move forward

Jana* is a woman in her mid-50s who was born overseas. She referred herself to Head to Health and reported that she had been subjected to family violence by her ex-husband during their marriage.